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05 The world Resources survey-Overview of mine resources in Asia and description of key mines


Overview of mine resources in Asia and description of key mines

                          2013-03-25 Ada Jewelry Arts Co.,Ltd


1、(Deccan Trappes, Poona,India)——(Apophyllite, Zeolite,Cavansite)

Deccan minerals are mainly unearthed from quarries around large cities such as Bombay, Pune, Nashik and Jalgaon. The most common minerals from basaltic lava plateau in Deccan of India are quartz, stilbite, heulandite, scolecite and calcite. Though Deccan is quite similar to Britain and Uruguay in terms of geological environment and metallogenetic conditions, amethyst is quite rare here while the most common quartz variant is chalcedony with cryptocrystalline texture. Apart from the above-mentioned minerals, many other minerals are also discovered, most of which are various variants of zeolite and their associated minerals, such as stellerite, mesolite, natrolite and chabasite. What is most worth mentioning is that such rare minerals as Yugawaralite and zeolite are also unearthed here. They have large crystals and are of high quality, which make them incomparable.

2、(Jalgaon, Maharashtra,India)——(Calcite,Apophyllite, stilbite, heulandite)

In the past 40 years, most of the choicest mineral or masterwork in India come from this district. However, the calcite from different places have their own features. Paragenetic mineral of calcite and crystal is quite common in this mining area, which usually appears in rock cracks or on inner walls of geodes and in the form of dense crystal group. Most Deccan calcites are in the rhombohedral crystalline form, and usually colorless. Local calcite can be light yellow or honey gold. Fine minerals can often be discovered from quarries around such large cities as Nashik and Pune. Calcites produced from these two places are usually paragenetic with stilbite and apophyllite. The calcites with rhombohedral crystalline form are often covered with stilbite and apophyllite by secondary crystallization, which make them quite typical. The deep yellow calcites produced from Nashik and Pune are also very popular among mineral collectors. Calcites discovered from the Jalgaon and Savda area during the quarrying also have typical features of their place of locality. It is common to see that crystals of different metallogenic epoches are paragenetic, forming a strange paragenetic combination: calcites crystallized and mineralized early are in the prismoid crystalline form and some of them appear in scepter twin crystals. They are large and the largest single crystal can be 15cm. They can emit pink fluorescence by exposed to ultraviolet rays and quartzes and a few apophyllites often grow over their crystal faces. Calcites by secondary crystallization are usually colorless and a small number of them are light yellow. They are in the rhombohedral crystalline form and the largest single crystal can reach 10cm.


Emerald deposit was discovered in 1943 in Rajasthan of India. Emerald belt is large, with length of 200 kilometers from north to south and width of 30 kilometers. Formation of emerald is related to granite pegmatite invading metamorphic ultra-basic rocks. Emerald is discovered in the form of nonuniform phenocryst and surrounding rocks are biotite schist and gneiss after strong migmatization. Emerald crystals are small, full of cracks and of poor quality. Emerald crystals are of columnar and tabular shape, with average length of 3~5cm and color from light green to dark green and from transparent to translucent. Almandine can be large in size and some even can weigh several kilograms. Such large crystals are discovered in Rajasthan of India. Typical phenomena of many deposits in India are the so-called mixed crystal of almandine and pyrope (carbuncle combination) and aubergine presented by the crystal.

Sri Lanka

4、(Ratnapura,Sri Lanka )——(Sapphire,Ruby)

Sri Lanka is affectionately known as “Ratna-Dweepa” which means Gem Island, and is well-known in the world for being rich in rubies, emeralds, cat's eyes, opals and sapphires. Among these, the sapphire is most famous. In the early 1980s, a huge sapphire was found in the Ratnapura region, Sri Lanka, weighing 362 carats after the processing and polishing, which is the world's third largest sapphire named as the "Star of Sri Lanka". It’s collected in the Nation Museum in Colombo as a national treasure.


5、(Mogok,Katha district,Burma)——(Ruby,Sapphire,Jadeite)

In Burma rubies have a reputation of rare treasures in case of the high degree of transparency, high quality, bright and beautiful colors. The world's best pigeon's blood ruby was mined in the Mogok region, Burma; the sapphire's common qualities and colors are good, especially with the high degree of transparency. As for these reasons, the star line of star sapphire is unapparent. Burma sapphires' impurities and crannies are much less than rubies, but the mined sapphires are still more than in other regions.


6、(Yenbai Province,Vietnam)——(Ruby,Sapphire,Aquamarine,Topaz)

In the later period of 1980s, high-quality ruby was found in the drift bed and alluvial deposits in Yenbai, Vietnam. Its major sources might be the griotte and pegmatite. So far, Vietnam mainly has the gem ore of ruby, sapphire, aquamarine and topaz, which distribute in different mining areas in north Vietnam. Ruby is yielded from the griotte in Day Nui Con Voimetamorphic belt; topaz and aquamarine come from the pegmatite related to the activity of acidic lava in Qinghua and Yongfu Province. The blue sapphire, zircon and peridot in the south Vietnam are generated from the Cenozoic basalt igneous province. In these districts, new discoveries of gemstones occurrences have been found, but haven’t been explored in detailed.



Thailand is also the important producing country and transaction centre for ruby. It is reported that nearly 70% high quality rubies are made in Thailand. Ruby is from Chanthaburi, the south east part in Thailand, which can be divided into mining area for blue, blue-green, yellow and black sapphire and ruby. Sapphire mining area is located at the west to Chanthaburi, while the ruby mining area at its east wbout 45 km and only 27km from Pailin, the famous locality for sapphire in Cambodia. Actually, with Pailin, they have become the biggest ruby mining area in the world. The rubies in this district are all exploited from the placer deposits, but its mother rock is the basic volcanic rock (basalt).


8、(Skardu, Pakistan)——(Aquamarine,Tourmaline,Spessartine)

The surrounding valley is rich in the gem or semi-precious stone such as aquamarine, tourmaline, garnet and crystal. The combination of blue aquamarine, black tourmaline, beryl crystal and brownish albite crystal is rather rare.


9、(Nuristan Province, Afghanistan)——(Tourmaline,Spodumen)

The major locality of mineral gem in Himalaya district shall be Afghanistan. The most important trade centre of mineral gem there is located in Nuristan Province, the capital of Afghanistan. Tourmalines produced in this region, with famous reputation, are generally used as mineral specimens transported to mineral collection markets for selling in the world; and still the kunzite produced in Nuristan province of Afghanistan are recognized as the best kunzite all over the world, especially its rich colors including blue, green and yellow etc. The crystals mainly grow perfectly, with slender and smooth crystal face, and curved and angular crystal edge; tabular ones are mostly observed, and twinned crystals are commonly seen.


In recent decades, Pech Valley pegmatite in Afghanistan has yielded the special, pink, transparent kunzite of different sizes. It is of beautiful color, special combination and has formed into the impressive mineral crystal together with the contrasting matrix.

11、(Sary-Sang mine,Badakhshan province,Afghanistan)——(Lapis lazuli)

Afghanistan is the world's leading producer of lapis-lazuli from the Sary-Sang mine in Badakhshan province. The deposit is hosted in Archean metamorphic rocks that have been intruded by alaskite granite and basic dykes.This has led to the formation of north-south skarnified zones in the calciphyre facies of the country rock. Nine zones have been identified thus far containing ten different lazurite grades, the largest being 250 m long and extending for 125 m downdip.


12、(Nishapur mines,Iran)——(Turquoise)

The Nishapur deposit in northeastern Iran is the main source of fine turquoise in a long time all over the world. Turquoises are produced in disseminated and conglomeration forms, Or it is distributed in the deeper layer with the cracks. Turquoise is filled in the cracks by loose or compact matters to form the reticulated vein.

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