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04 The world Resources survey-Overview of mine resources in Europe and description of key mines


Author:John

Overview of mine resources in Europe and description of key mines

                                         2013-03-25 Ada Jewelry Arts Co.,Ltd
 

Russia

1、(Dal'negorsk,Russia)——(Calcite,Sphalerite, Galena,Quartz,Fluorite, Chalcopyrite, Pyrrhotite)

The Dal'negorsk mining area in Russia is composed by more than 1,000 deposites and occurrences. With over 30 large and medium deposits, it is one of the biggest mineral bases in the country. It is famous for the diversity, over 160 species having been found so far. Nikolaevskiy is the one to yield the most fine mineral specimen until closed in 1993. From 1980 to 1993, it had the surprising discoveries in every year. A large number of delicate mineral specimens unearthed are of high quality and some even reach the standard of being collected by the mineral museums. The most unusual mineral specimens which most attract collectors are calcites with fascinating crystalline form, large angular sphalerite and galena, various quartz, clear and transparent fluorite (mainly of cubic crystalline form; there are also other various crystalline forms and combination of crystalline forms), chalcopyrite (maximum size of single crystal can reach 40cm) and the best pyrrhotite in the world. Sphalerite crystals discovered from Dalnegorsk mining area have perfect shape, with largest single crystal being 15cm. They usually exist as variant of marmatite, with typical metal lustre of black or blue black. They are usually nontransparent. Though there are various crystalline forms, the tetrahedron is the main form, with various complicated variants or combinations. Famous Russia ruby, also known as salmon crystal, is yielded from the Dalnegorsk region, which is well known for its minerals in Russia. The ruby features an attractive, soft and uniform color, which is just like the color of salmon meat. It is totally different from other rubies whose colors are due to the hematite. The crystal is tapering, with few output. Dal'negorsk mining area owns the largest fluorite mine in Russia.

2、(Perm, Russia)——(Uvarooite)

The best-known place of locality for uvarovite in Russia is gem mining area of Perm Oblast, where Bichsel, to the south of Saranovskoye and Teplaya Gora mining area near Sarany are most productive. The maximum diameter of single uvarovite crystal can reach 8mm.

3、(Popigai,Siberia,Russia)——(Diamond )

The diamond mine was discovered in the 1970s. The mine is located in a meteorite crater with the diameter of over 100 kilometers in the east of Siberia. Its reserve is estimated to be over trillion carats, which can satisfy the demand of the global diamond market for 3,000 years. Scientists indicate that, this Popigai meteorite crater has a history of over 35 million years and its diamond reserve is estimated to be 10 times of the number by adding up diamond reserves of other regions in the world.

4、(Dodo Mine, Tyumenskaya Oblast,Russia)——(Smoky Quartz)

The most famous quartz in this area has the gem-like bright lustre and dramatic twisting style.

5、(Mursinka, Ural Gebirge, Russia)——(Emerald,Topaz)

Mursinka, Ural Gebirge is the important locality for emerald. The granite with emerald will become the yellow soil after efflorescence. It contains the emerald crystal of high quality, mainly in blue, red and fuchsia color.

6、Zumrudnye Kopi(Urals´s Izumrudnye Kopi,Russia)——(Alexandrite,Emerald,Phenakite )

The first alexandrite in the world was found in the micaschist in Tokovaya river in 1833. But the biggest alexandrite druse was found in 1840. Between 1840-1900, Izumrudnye Kopi was the major source place for alexandrite. It is a beryllium ore, containing emeald, alexandrite and phenakite.

Kazakhstan

7、(Itauz Mine, Dzhezkazgan, Kazakhstan)——(Cuprite,Copper)

The crystal of octahedron cuprite, which is subtransparent and red-gray, produced in Itauz mine, grows naturally and completely on the gray matrix. The dendritic shape of natural copper looks rather beautiful.

Ukraine

8、(Wolodarsk, Ukraine)——(Heliodor,Topaz)

Wolodarsk is the historical pegmatite district (yielding the extremely good heliodor and topaz), 22 kilometers from south to north, and with 500-1,000 meters of width. In 1980s, some huge heliodor crystals had been found in this ancient mine, which is classic and cannot be found any longer. Its juice-like radiance is a feast for the eyes.

Poland

9、(Poland)——(Amber)

Today Baltic amber is in great demand and short supply. Represented by Poland, the amber of Baltic Sea is undoubtedly the best one in the world. And its output is large, nearly 90% ambers are made from here.

England

10、(Cumberland, England)——(Calcite, Barite)

Calcite unearthed from Cumberland mining area has clear features: common colorless twin crystal is excellent in gloss and transparency. It is crystal clear and clean, with typical prismatic crystalline form. Crystals are not too large, most of which are of centimeters in size. Paragenetic and associated minerals are barite, fluorite, quartz, hematite, galena and dolomite. Cumberland’s calcite is well known among collectors. It is an indispensable classic from mineral museums and personal collections all over the world, which is almost synonymous with fine calcite and can be seen in almost any mineral museum in the world. The barite in this district has the special prismoidal crystal. Some of them have the twin crystal. It is usually yellow and transparent, attracting people’s eyes

11、(Rogerley Mine, Durham County, England)——(Fluorite)

It is located in Wear Valley mining area of the Pennines, which is a traditional mineral base with a long history in England. Fluorite produced from the Rogerley mine is shining and verdant. Usually, a amethyst nucleus with maximum size of about 4cm can be found inside the translucent crystal. Some fluorites even have unique twin crystals. What is most amazing is that fluorite crystals can show different colors when exposed to natural light and artificial light: it is green crystal when exposed to artificial light while it will turn blue after exposed to natural light. In fact, it is an optical change process caused by extreme ultraviolet rays among the sun's rays. Likewise, fluorite crystal can also change its color and even emit beautiful fluorescence when exposed to specific extreme ultraviolet rays in the dark. Rogerley mine of England is just the place where these special fluorites striking the collectors are discovered.

Austria

12、Untersulzbach,Knappenwand(Knappenwand,Austria)——(Epidote)

The most classic epidote district in the world might be Knappenwand, located in Untersulzbach valley on the Alps in Austria. The big and sharp crystal with lustre receives the high concerns. Another two classic localities on Alps shall be the Wallis Island in Switzerland and Ezel in France.

13、(Habachtal,Austria)——(Emerald )

Habachtal, Austria is the only locality for emerald in Europe, but it has retired from the scene. Long time ago, Habachtal was one of the known source places for emerald, but nowadays it has become the pronoun for emerald jewelry and arts.

Italy

14 Sicily,Italy (Sulphur)

The natural sulphur from Sicily, Italy has the dazzling yellow color, and it is always the pursuit of mineral fans with its high quality, perfect shape and lustre.

France

15、(Les Farges Mine, Corrèze, France) ——(Pyromorphite )

For a long time, France is the major supplier of pyromorphite The crystals of any color or shape can be found there. And, the bi-color secondary crystallization pyromorphite produced by Les Farges mine, Corrèze is unique in the world.

16、(Chamonix, Haute-Savoie, France) ——(Fluorite, smoky quartz)

Chamonix fluorite is usually the pink octahedron crystal, with the twin crystal structure. The tea-colored quartz has the bright lustre as gem. It composes of the classic group with fluorite

Geermany

17、(Freiberg,Erzgebirge,Germany)——(Silver)

Quite attractive native silver specimens can be often discovered from mines near Freiburg of Erzgebirge in Saxony region in Germany. The largest silver specimen discovered in Germany up to now is that “Silver Table” recorded in history long ago. It was discovered in snow mountains of Erzgebirge around 1500 with amazing huge twisted ore blocks. The whole specimen is about 2×1×4 meter of its dimension, weighing up to 20 tons.

18、(Pöhla,Germany)——(Barite,silver)

Barite collected from uranium and silver mines near famous Pöhla of Erzgebirge in Germany is well known. Its golden yellow crystals with excellent transparency are bright and largest single crystal can reach 10cm, which make it classic representative of fine mineral specimens of barite.

19、(Bad Ems,Germany)——(Fluorite)

The fluorite from Bad Ems is quite popular in the world, not just because of its pleasing shape. In fact, near all fine mineral crystals had been exploited in the second half year of 1800.

Portugal

20、(Panasqueira,portugal)——(Apatite,Wolframite)

Panasqueira mine in Portugal is the wolframite. It contains a series of parallel quartz vein with wolframite and cassiterite. The mineralized zone is about 500-1,000 meters long and 500 meters deep. The minerals in upper part have been exploited. During the mineralization of wolframite, huge crystal or crystal combination has been produced. They are usually at the border of mineral, but few of them get close to the mid-line of main quartz vein. Mineralization might have the strong biotitization.

Spain

21、(Asturias, Spain)——(Barite,Fluorite)

The combined mineral of fluorite and barite from Asturias mine in Spain is quite beautiful for the bright contrast in color and diverse shapes. The barite of good quality and beautiful shape was also used to be collected before, especially the slab blue barite with huge crystal is the most famous one among them.

Switzerland

22、(Ziggenstock,Switzerland )——(Fluorite,smoky quartz)

Grown in rock cracks on Alps, octahedral red fluorite is extremely exquisite, among which some grow on colorless and transparent quartz or black quartz. These fine specimens of paragenetic minerals are popular and priceless.

Finland

23、(Outokumpu,)——(Uvarovite)

Outokumpu of Finland also produced uvarovite. Its crystals are usually small and largest single crystals are about 2cm. However, large dense crystal aggregates are often discovered.

Romania

24、(Cavnik) and (Herja,Romania)——(Calcite)

Apart from various crystalline forms, other main features of calcite are worth mentioning: crystals are not large; crystals of several centimeters in size are not angular, instead they are smooth at the edges with beautiful lines; Herja mining area yields a kind of special deformed calcite, which gets its black from inside jamesonite and whose crystalline form is leaflike. Common paragenetic and associated minerals are dolomite, quartz, pyrite and galena. Sometimes associated minerals also include fluorite.

Norway

25、(Kangsberg,Buskerud,Norway)——(Argentite ,Silver)

The largest argentite grown freely can reach 3cm and it usually is in a paragenetic relationship with slim native silver threads. Some silver threads can reach 2m. These well-known native silver ore specimens are mostly collected by famous mineral museums as the icon.

Czech

26、(Moldavite, Czechia)——(Meteorite )

Moldavite was found in Moldavite river in 1787, so it was named after the river. (Moldavite was put forward by scholar FranzXaverZIPPE (1791-1863), German, meaning “the stone of Vltava River”). It is called Moldavite in China and green meteorite in Hong Kong. Records of Unusual Things in Lingbiao, wrote by Liu Xun in Tang Dynasty mentions the “tektite”, which is referred to Moldavite or similar glass meteorite. Moldavite had been formed in 15 million years ago. At that time, a huge meteorite crashed into the earth surface, the explosion generated the high temperature and pressure. And then this meteorite combined with the surrounding stones into the wave-like glass matters. At last, it was found in Moldavite in 1787, so it is called Moldavite.


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